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Extra resources for 2008 Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program-Brand New Volume III: Organ Systems Book 1
However, the venous side is very compliant, and sudden changesin position allow the blood in the peripheral veins to stretch 58 Physiology the vesselwalls and transiently pool, thereby decreasingvenous return to the heart. Three main mechanismsare involved in maintaining venous blood flow toward the heart: a. Abdominothoracic pump of inspiration.
Note that even when there are no pathologic intracardiac shunts or regurgitant valvular lesions,the EFs of the two ventricles may be different. c. Although EF is affectedby the ventricular preload and afterload, it is the best clinical index of myocardial contractility. B. Measuring cardiac output. The Fick oxFgen rnethod is based on the principle of the conservation of mass. Thus, the total uptake of oxygen by the lungs per minute must equal the product of the pulmonary blood flow per minute and the difference in the oxygen concentrations in pulmonary venous (systemic arterial) and pulmonary arterial (systemic mixed 48 Physiology venous) blood.
A, cardiac output curve; B, venous return curve; C, interactionof cardiac output and venous return curves) c. Conversely,it is shifted downward and rightward by negative inotropic agents,increasesin afterload, or decreasesin heart rate, all of which decreasethe cardiac output at a given right atrial pressure. 2. Venous return curves a. , the flow of blood returning to the heart from the venous system) is plotted as a function of the right atrial pressure (Figure l-4-178). Note that in contrastto cardiacoutput, venousreturn decreases as venous filling pressure increases.