By Carol Berkin
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Other cases in which attorneys’ fees were awarded against States are Hutto v. S. 678 (1978); and New York Gaslight Club v. S. 54 (1980). 79 and accompanying text, infra), application of the rule curbed congressional enforcement. Fitzpatrick v. S. 445 451– 53 (1976); Hutto v. S. 678, 693–98 (1978). Because of its rule of clear statement, the Court in Quern v. S. C. § 1983, Congress had not intended to include States within the term ‘‘person’’ for the purpose of subjecting them to suit. The question arose after Monell v.
Notice relief’’ permitted under Quern v. Jordan is consistent with the Eleventh Amendment only insofar as it is ancillary to valid prospective relief designed to prevent ongoing violations of federal law. Thus, where Congress has changed the AFDC law and the State is complying with the new law, an order to state officials to notify claimants that past payments may have been inadequate conflicts with the Eleventh Amendment. S. 267 (1977). 126 Id. at 289. 122 Id. 1544 AMENDMENT 11—SUITS AGAINST STATES not view them as ‘‘compensation,’’ inasmuch as they were not to be paid to victims of past discrimination but rather used to better conditions either for them or their successors.
AMENDMENT 11—SUITS AGAINST STATES 1543 In Edelman v. Jordan, 121 the Court appeared to begin to lay down new restrictive interpretations of what the Eleventh Amendment proscribed. ’’ 122 What the Court actually held, however, was that it was permissible for federal courts to require state officials to comply in the future with claims payment provisions of the welfare assistance sections of the Social Security Act, but that they were not permitted to hear claims seeking, or issue orders directing, payment of funds found to be wrongfully withheld.