By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
A successor to A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (Cambridge, 1990), this quantity introduces the speculation and technique in the back of the development of the hot time scale, prior to featuring the size itself in huge aspect. a global workforce of over 40 stratigraphic specialists develops the main updated foreign stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic eras. a wide wallchart (not on hand for e-book) summarizing the time scale behind the ebook completes this important reference for researchers and scholars.
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Additional info for A Geologic Time Scale 2004
The chron concept in GTS89 implied equal duration of zones in prominent biozonal schemes, such as a conodont scheme for the Devonian. In Chapter 8, the chronogram method is 10 PA RT I I N T RO D U C T I O N discussed in more detail and compared with the maximum likelihood method of interpolations using all radiometric ages, not only chronostratigraphically inconsistent ones. The Bureau de R´echerches G´eologiques et Mini`eres and the Soci´et´e G´eologique de France published a stratigraphic scale and time scale compiled by Odin and Odin (1990).
12 Introduction Ma 60 Holmes (1937) Holmes (1960) GTS82 Harlandt et al. 4 EX88 Haq et al. (1987) GTS89 Harland et al. 5 65 SEPM95 Gradstein et al. 6(a) Comparison at the period level of selected Mesozoic time scales with GTS2004. 0 250 13 Ma 60 Holmes (1937) Holmes (1960) GTS82 Harland et al. (1982) Kulp (1961) NDS82 Odin (1982) DNAG83 Kent and Gradstein (1983) EX88 Haq et al. (1987) GTS89 Harland et al. (1990) SEPM95 Gradstein et al. 5 70 70 Maastricht. 70 72 Maastricht. Maastricht. Maastricht.
Using detailed graptolite sequences from over 200 sections from oceanic and slope environment basins, a robust composite fossil sequence was calculated using the constrained optimization method of compositing. 7 to 416 Ma. Calculated uncertainties are relatively small. 5 Ma, which is a decrease of ∼60 myr since Holmes (1937) and of ∼35 myr compared to the scales of Holmes (1960) and Kulp (1961). Selected key Mesozoic time scales are compared to GTS2004 in Figs. 6a,b. The geologic time scale for the Mesozoic has undergone various improvements during the last two decades.