Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa: Farmers, the State, by J. Clapp

By J. Clapp

With the adoption of an international Bank-sponsored structural adjustment programme within the mid-1980s, Guinea underwent a dramatic swap in its fiscal and agricultural rules. The country's event during the last decade illustrates one of the most urgent difficulties encountered by way of African international locations pursuing monetary reform. This e-book analyses those problems by way of analyzing the adjustment event in Guinea because it affected the country's total political economic system and the rural region particularly. It additionally locations this situation in the broader context of African adjustment.

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23 Despite these difficulties, the Bank itself has managed to come up with some numbers, and though it has tried to portray them as evidence that adjustment was 'working', they are somewhat disappointing when 18 Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa assessing the progress of GNP and agricultural sector growth in Africa in the 1980s-90s. 8 per cent over the 1980-93 period. 1 per cent. Non-food crops saw a mixed response, with export crop production tending to increase slightly. Per capita food production, however, declined over the late 1980s and food imports rose for SSA countries by an average of 50 per cent between 1980 and 1993.

4 The main conduit for gaining cash to pay the tax was to take part in the rubber trade. 5 Rubber trees at that time grew wild in much of Guinea. 6 World demand for rubber from the late 1800s to 1911 was strong, and indeed during most of that period the poll tax was payable in rubber itself. Many rural dwellers resisted the tax, adding sticks and stones to increase the weight of the bundles, while others left the country altogether. 7 By 1911 the world rubber price plummeted due to growth in the supply of cheap Malaysian rubber.

While many African leaders did think about pursuing World Bank reform programmes, it became increasingly evident that political opposition to change was a major obstacle to adopting reforms. 51 In an attempt to improve upon its own awareness of political factors, in the latter half of the 1980s, the Bank's Economic Development Institute organised two series of seminars on the political dimensions of economic reform in Africa. The participants of the first series were political scientists, and the participants of the second series were African policy makers.

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