Animal Sciences. Hab-Pep by Allan B. Cobb

By Allan B. Cobb

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33 Human Evolution One of the earliest defining human traits is bipedalism, the ability to walk upright on two legs. This characteristic evolved over four million years ago. Other important human characteristics, such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language and culture, developed more recently. Many of what we consider advanced traits, such as art, religion, and different expressions of cultural diversity, emerged during the past 100,000 years.

Although it is possible to trace the lineage, or history, of a certain species, the wider view shows that evolution is actually a very broad process. It may be helpful to visualize evolution as a tree from which many branches sprout, with each branch representative of a line of organisms evolving from the center of the tree. Many of these branches, or lineages, may die out. Other branches continue to grow and branch out further, resulting in the great diversity of life on Earth today. ” Horses did not evolve in a straight line from a common ancestor, through species after species, until the modern wild horse appeared.

In addition, insect wings are foils made up primarily of chitin, a type of tissue, while bird and bat wings are highly complex with various tissue types organized into different structures such as feathers, skin, bone, blood, muscle, and nerves. genes segments of DNA located on chromosomes that direct protein production phylogenetic relating to the evolutionary history of species or group of related species homoplastic similar but of different origins amniotes vertebrates that have a fluid-filled sac that surrounds the embryo metazoans a subphylum of animals that have many cells and some are organized into tissues chitin a complex carbohydrate found in the exoskeleton of some animals The question of whether an identical trait shared by two or more taxa is the result of homology or homoplasy usually cannot be decided based on a single character alone.

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