By Robert W. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson, H. Lyn Miles
Humans mostly imagine that animals are psychologically like themselves (anthropomorphism), and describe what animals do in narratives (anecdotes) that aid those mental interpretations. this is often the 1st booklet to judge the importance and value of the practices of anthropomorphism and anecdotalism for knowing animals. different views are awarded in considerate, serious essays by way of historians, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists, behaviorists, biologists, primatologists, and ethologists. the character of anthropomorphism and anecdotal research is tested; social, cultural, and ancient attitudes towards them are provided; and clinical attitudes are appraised. Authors supply interesting in-depth descriptions and analyses of numerous species of animals, together with octopi, nice apes, monkeys, canine, sea lions, and, in fact, people. matters approximately, and recommendations for, reviews of numerous mental facets of animals are mentioned, together with psychological nation attribution, intentionality, cognition, awareness, self-consciousness, and language.
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Additional resources for Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals
Metaphorical meaning cannot travel in all the directions that the literal meaning does. For instance, as Lakoff and Johnson (1980) note, in the "Time is money" example, we can spend our time trying to do something and it doesn't work, but we cannot get that same time reimbursed. Metaphorical meaning is different from literal meaning and, as mentioned, is at some level dependent upon the literal meaning, even if it allows expression of something for which we have no literal terms. For example, in Ortony's (1975) metaphor, "the thought slipped my mind," we have no way of characterizing what is a thought, nor how it may move, nor what is mind, yet it describes an experience.
124-142), and was one of the key argumentative strategies of Darwinism. After all, Darwin might have attempted to demonstrate continuity by pointing out the bestial qualities in human beings; there is certainly plenty of evidence for their existence. However, that tactic would not only have been off-putting, it would not have answered any triumphant pointing to unique human abilities and virtues. So Darwin argued for continuity by providing examples of the human qualities in beasts. Thus he could simultaneously face the hard theoretical problem and give what he would call a truer and more cheerful view (see Darwin, 1871/1981, p.
The twentieth-century behavioristic rejection of all mentalistic terminology and concepts is a logical extension of Morgan's Canon: if we cannot anthropomorphize the animals, we cannot anthropomorphize ourselves either. <><><><><><><><><><><><> < previous page page_20 If you like this book, buy it! next page > < previous page page_21 next page > Page 21 What general conclusions can we draw from all of this? First, a point useful in a time of much popularized sociobiology: that the psychological and social arrangements that we perceive in animals are more likely to be projections of our own social conventions and assumptions than timeless and universally recognizable accounts of the way animals really are.