By Abdulkarim Parikh
Dictionary of Koran.
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Extra resources for Asan lughatulquran: Tilavat ki tartib se : Arabi, Urdu
Those individuals who stay have usually become attracted to the social benefits of membership. Nevertheless, the existence of purposive incentives means that party members, unlike employees in a business firm, have preferences over the type of output their organisation produces (Demsetz, 1990). They thereby have an interest in the institutional configuration of power in the party, because it partly determines which policies are adopted. This point leads to Schlesinger’s third variable, the mode of compensation offered by the organisation.
First, ‘freedom’ reflected the union movement’s desire for autonomy from the state, as expressed in the right to strike, collective bargaining, and other union prerogatives. In the Labour Party, it led to a ‘rule’ that Labour governments should do nothing to hinder the unions’ pursuit of their industrial interests; the unions, in turn, should not use their financial and constitutional power to sanction the party if it fails to deliver the policies they want. Second, ‘democracy’ entailed a deep respect for majority decisionmaking, particularly in a delegatory form, and was expressed in affection for the party conference.
Downs, 1957: 25, emphasis in original) Downs’ intention was to explore the dynamics of party competition in a simplified setting, so he assumed away internal divisions in parties. However, opening up the ‘black box’ reveals that party organisation is a response to transaction costs that attend party-voter exchange, most notably, costs covering organisation, mobilisation, and the collection and transmission of information. Thus, parties have incomplete information about voters’ preferences; hence the need for polling and focus groups.