Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, by Chris Barnard, Francis Gilbert, Peter Mcgregor

By Chris Barnard, Francis Gilbert, Peter Mcgregor

The entire advisor to sensible paintings within the organic sciences: from perception of the research, via facts assortment, info research and at last presentation.

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Additional resources for Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, Experimental Design and Presentation in Practical Work and Research Projects (3rd Edition)

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Using pivot tables to summarise by category. 2, Fig. (iii). This can be done very simply for total values using the so-called ‘pivot table’ facility. 2, Fig. (iii)) and select ‘Pivot Table and Pivot Chart Report . ’. 2, Fig. (iii). Select ‘Microsoft Excel list or database’ as the source of data in the first pivot table dialogue box and click ‘Next’. qxd 18/06/2007 03:11PM Page 36 36 CHAPTER 2 ASKING QUESTIONS (a) (b) Figure (ii) (a) Setting up a ‘pivot table’ in Excel by dragging variable headings into the Rows and Columns box; (b) the resulting ‘pivot table’ in the worksheet.

An obvious way to see how is to plot a scattergram of number of fights per encounter against distance. The result (Fig. 2) suggests that, while there is a fair spread of values at each distance, there is a tendency for more encounters to result in a fight when crickets are close to a burrow. It is important to bear in mind that, as each cricket was observed in turn, results for the different animals are independent of each other and the trend is not a trivial outcome of a fight scored for one cricket also counting as a fight for his opponent.

Hypothesis 3D(ii) Pollutants create niche opportunities not available in unpolluted sites. Prediction 3D(ii) For any given number of species in the culture in an otherwise constant environment, such species will do better when pollutant is added compared with an unpolluted control. Observation Fewer juvenile stages were recorded from the organophosphatepolluted site than from the other two sites, but there was no consistent difference in the number of females with eggs. Hypothesis 3E(i) Organophosphate pollution affects recruitment to nematode populations through reduced egg viability.

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