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These principles form the basis for application of seismic methods to geologic study. Magnetic Surveys Magnetic surveys are methods that provide the quickest and least expensive way to study gross subsurface geology over a broad area. A magnetometer is used to measure local variations in the strength of the earth’s magnetic field and, indirectly, the thickness of sedimentary rock layers where oil and gas might be found. Igneous and metamorphic rocks usually contain some amount of magnetically susceptible iron-bearing minerals and are frequently found as basement rock that lies beneath sedimentary rock layers.
All molecules in a fluid will attract each other mutually because of their force of cohesion. This can be demonstrated in Figure 27, which illustrates several molecules of water in a droplet of water. Molecule A will feel equally balanced forces of cohesion on all sides because of the surrounding water molecules. Molecule B, however, will feel no comparable attractive force from above. Consequently, there will be an unbalanced cohesive force at the air-water interface, which attempts to pull the molecules down and hold them together.
Oil 3). Water As hydrocarbons and water accumulate in a reservoir, vertical separation occurs as a result of the difference in the specific gravity of the various fluids. Typically, the lighter fluids, like gas, rise to the top of the reservoir. Figure 26 Below the lighter fluids is a gas to oil transition zone. This transition zone is a relatively thin zone above the oil accumulation. The oil accumulation may be of primary importance because it contains crude oil and possibly saturated gas. Below the oil accumulation in most reservoirs is an oil-water transition zone of varying thickness, which is partly filled with water and oil.