By Bridget Joan Stutchbury; Eugene S Morton
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Additional info for Behavioral ecology of tropical birds
1992,Wingfield and Lewis 1993). 2; Wikelski et al. 1999a). 2 Plasma testosterone level (ng m1-1)of male Spotted Antbirds in Panama over the year, including the breeding season from April-November (from Wikelski et al. 1999a), and for Red-winged Blackbirds in North America that breed from April-June (Johnsen 1998). Drawings from Medsger (1931) and Wetmore (1972). Zonotrichia leucophrys (Hau et al. 2000). 5 ng m1-1. This is much lower than testosterone levels typical of temperate zone birds (4-6 ng ml-1; Hau et al.
Resources other than food, such as nest sites and roosting sites, can also result in limited opportunities for successful dispersal (Restrepo and Mandrag6n 1998). For instance, cooperative breeding is relatively uncommon among fruit specialists, perhaps because of the loose territorial system seen in many frugivores owing to the abundance and changing availability of fruit and the difficulty of defending it (Brown 1987). Cooperative breeding does occur in frugivores like hornbills (Witmer 1993), and toucan barbets (Restrepo and Mandrag6n 1998), which defend nesting and roosting cavities.
Elaenia, Vireo, Basileuterus, Sporophila). 89 13 0 0 0 0 102 TERRITORIALITY 63 But there are many variations within this basic pattern. In addition to year-long territorial and permanent pair bond systems, the tropics offer: 1. 2. 3. 4. many types of lek and cooperative breeding examples, loosely defended territories where pair members leave welldefended nesting territories, more or less independently, to visit fruit sources, species more or less dependent upon the peregrinations of army ants, and the pros and cons of membership in mixed flocks of several different sorts.