Carbonate Diagenesis and Porosity by G. V. Chilingarian

By G. V. Chilingarian

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A similar occurrence was described by Sellwood and others (1987) in the Jurassic Great Oolite reservoir facies in the subsurface of southern England (Fig. 15). SECONDARY POROSITY ASSOCIATED WITH FRACTURES 39 Secondary porosity associated with breccias Brecciation of carbonate rock sequences can occur in a number of situations, including: evaporite solutioncollapse,limestonesolutioncollapse (Fig. Loucks and Anderson (1985; see Chapter 7) describe porous zones developed in evaporite solution collapse sequences in the Ordovician Ellenburger at Puckett field in west Texas.

6. Porosity-permeability plot of Holocene carbonate sediments. Used with permission of SEPM. Framework and fenestral porosity Framework porosity, associated with the activity of reef-building organisms, can be an important depositional porosity type in the reef environment. Framebuilders, such as scleractinian corals, can construct an open reef framework, potentially enclosing FRAMEWORK AND FENESTRAL POROSITY 31 enormous volumes of pore space during the development of the reef (Fig. 8). It is this depositionalporosity potential that has long attracted the economic geologist to the study of reefs.

Comparison of porosity in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Aspect Sandstone carbonate Amount of primary porosity in sediments Commonly 5 4 0 % Commonly 40-70% Amount of ultimate porosity in rocks Commonly half or mare of initial porosity; 15-30% common Commonly none or only small fraction of initiol porosity; 5-1 5% common in reservoir facies Type(s) of primary porosity Almost exclusively interparticle Interparticle commonly predominates, but intraparticle and other types are important Type(s) of ultimate porosity Almost exclusively primary interparticle Widely varied because of postdepositional modifications Sizes of pores Diameter end throat sizes closely related to sedimentary particle size and sorting Diameter and throat sizes commonly show little relation to sedimentary particle size or sorting Shape of pores Strong dependence on particle s h a p e 4 “negative” of particles Greatly varied, ronges from strongly dependent “positive“ or ”negative” of particles to form completely independent of shapes of depositional or diagenetic components Uniformity of size, shape, and distribution Commonly fairly uniform within homogeneous body Variable, ranging from fairly uniform to extremely heterogeneous, even within body made up of single rack type Influence of diagenesis Minor; usually minor reduction of primary porosity by compaction and cementation Major; can create, obliterate, or completely modify porosity; cementation and solution important Influence of fracturing Generally not of major importance in reservuir properties Of moior importance in reservoir properties if present Visual evaluation of porosity and permeability Semiquantitative visual estimates commonly relatively easy Variable; semiquantitative visual estimates range from easy to virtually impossible; instrument measurements of pcrosity, permeability and capillary pressure commonly needed Adequacy of core analysis for reservoir evaluation Core plugs of 1-in.

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