Cell and Molecular Biology of Plastids by Kevin Pyke (auth.), Ralph Bock (eds.)

By Kevin Pyke (auth.), Ralph Bock (eds.)

The previous twenty years have witnessed an immense development in our figuring out of plastid (chloroplast) biology. easy rules of plastid biogenesis, genome constitution and serve as, gene expression and its law in addition to plastid-nuclear interplay and communique pathways were elucidated. moreover, the prospect to at once adjust the genetic details of the plastid by means of transformation has facilitated the research of almost all facets of plastid biology in vivo and, in addition, has cleared the path to varied purposes of transgenic plastids in biotechnology.

The current e-book offers a complete assessment of our present wisdom on plastid biogenesis, plastid-nuclear communique, the legislation of plastid gene expression in any respect degrees, and likewise assesses the cutting-edge in key applied sciences, similar to proteomics and chloroplast transformation. Written through well-known specialists within the box, it covers plastid differentiation and department, genome constitution and serve as, plastid inheritance, recombination, DNA replication and service, transcription, RNA processing and translation in addition to an important posttranslational methods in plastid biogenesis and serve as, together with protein processing, the meeting of multiprotein complexes, protein balance and degradation, protein import and sorting.

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Sample text

This suggests that plastoglobuli have a metabolic role in the plastid rather than simply being a storage sac. It is unclear whether such a pro- Plastid biogenesis and differentiation 13 teome and metabolome profile varies significantly between plastoglobuli in elaioplasts and those plastoglobuli, which appear less abundantly in other plastid types such as chloroplasts. 4 The control of plastid differentiation The type of plastid present in a given type of cell is dictated by the nature of that cell type.

The final outcome of this process is mature mesophyll cells containing large populations of individual chloroplasts. The actual number of chloroplasts present is mainly related to the size of the cell, a relationship that extends across different species. In mature leaves in most species, the mesophyll cells contain between 50 and 200 chloroplasts. It is normally assumed that the basic mechanism by which plastids divide is the same for proplastids and for young chloroplasts although the control factors for these two processes are likely to differ.

Plastid division normally occurs at the midpoint of the plastid such that the two daughter plastids, which result from the division process, are equally sized. The mechanism that ensures this equality is based on the system of Min genes, which function for a similar purpose in bacterial cell division. MinD (Colletti et al. 2000) and MinE (Itoh et al. 2001) both dictate that the FtsZ ring is allowed to form only in the middle of the plastid’s long axis and is prevented from forming at either pole (Fujiwara et al.

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