Chemistry and technology of polyols for polyurethanes by Mihail Ionescu

By Mihail Ionescu

Polyurethanes are some of the most dynamic teams of polymers, they locate use in approximately each point of contemporary lifestyles, in purposes reminiscent of furnishings, bedding, seating and device panels for vehicles, shoe soles, thermoinsulation, carpet backings, packaging, adhesives, sealants, binders and as coatings.

In 2004 10.6 million hundreds polyurethanes have been produced, in 2014 the area creation used to be as regards to 20 million plenty. within the final decade (2005-2015) very important, around the world advancements within the quarter of polyols for polyurethanes have been conducted, specifically for polyols from renewable assets, defined intimately during this moment variation of the book.

The major uncooked fabrics used for the construction of PU are polyols and isocyanates. the 1st of those is the topic of this quantity handbook.

Volume 1 is devoted to polyols for elastic PU (flexible foams, elastomers and so on).

Volume 2 is devoted to polyols for inflexible PU (rigid foams, wooden replacement, packaging, flotation fabrics and so on).

The publication considers the uncooked fabrics used to construct the PU polymeric structure. It covers the chemistry and know-how of oligo-polyol fabrication, the features of a number of the oligo-polyol households and the consequences of the oligo-polyol constitution at the homes of the ensuing PU. It provides the main points of oligo-polyol synthesis, and explains the chemical and physico-chemical subtleties of oligo-polyol fabrication.

This e-book hyperlinks info and knowledge in regards to the chemistry and expertise of oligo-polyols for PU, supplying a accomplished evaluation of:

  • Basic PU chemistry
  • Key oligo-polyol characteristics
  • Synthesis of the most oligo-polyol households, together with: polyether polyols, stuffed polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polybutadiene polyols, acrylic polyols, polysiloxane polyols, aminic polyols
  • Polyols from renewable resources
  • Flame retardant polyols
  • Chemical restoration of polyols
  • Relationships among polyol constitution and PU properties

This e-book should be of curiosity to all experts operating with polyols for the manufacture of PU and to all researchers that might prefer to comprehend extra approximately polyol chemistry.

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Additional info for Chemistry and technology of polyols for polyurethanes

Example text

Due to the high polarity of EO units, DEG-sucrose mixtures [51] show an excellent stirrability of the initial reaction mass, but only for medium functionalities of approximately 4–5 hydroxyl groups/mol. This method of direct propoxylation of mixtures between sucrose and a second polyol is often used in practice, the most important polyols being based on: sucrose-glycerol, sucrose-TEOA and sucrose-DEG. 5 shows the characteristics of some rigid polyether polyols, based on sucroseglycerol and sucrose-TEOA.

The point of the sudden change in the PO consumption rate is the moment of total transformation of the initial amine in a trialkanolamine of lower catalytic activity. Because of the low PO polymerisation rate in the second part of the reaction, at normal polymerisation temperatures of 110–120 °C, it is practically impossible to obtain, in the presence of tertiary amines as catalysts, polyether polyols with a OH# lower than 400 mg KOH/g. The second side reaction is the Hofmann degradation, a destruction of the quaternary ammonium alcoholate by β-hydrogen abstraction.

S at 25 °C. By analogy, a very interesting reactive liquid reaction media for propoxylation of solid polyols are the alkylene carbonates (ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate) [36]. 47 Chemistry and Technology of Polyols for Polyurethanes, 2nd Edition, Volume 2 Thus, a suspension of sucrose in ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate was propoxylated easily, in the presence of KOH as catalyst, at 110–120 °C. All the solid sucrose was transformed in liquid polyol. The resulting polyol had carbonate units from the reaction of hydroxyl groups with cyclic carbonates.

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