Children, Young Adults, and the Law: A Dictionary by Lauren Krohn Arnest

By Lauren Krohn Arnest

Readers will know about problems with value to young children similar to definitely the right to force, drink, interact in sexual family members, and select a custodial father or mother. The ebook additionally addresses teens' felony obligations together with civil and felony legal responsibility and the unique criminal doctrines and methods that guard minors after they are the topic of felony proceedings.General concerns similar to baby custody, help, adoption, abuse, and inheritance also are mentioned. vital laws and criminal circumstances affecting kids and teenagers are completely coated during this well timed quantity. A desk of circumstances, a listing of organisations, a advisor to extra examining, and an index also are incorporated.

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Following the hearing, the judge ordered Gault to be committed as a juvenile delinquent to a detention center until he was twenty-one years old—a period of six long years. The judge provided no written reasons for his decision, and no appeal was permitted under Arizona law. Gault’s case reached the Supreme Court in 1967. The high Court declared for the first time that juveniles must be given due process of law in juvenile court. Although the procedures need not conform exactly to what is required in adult court, this due process must at least include adequate notice of the charges to both the juvenile and his or her parents, notice that the juvenile has a right to remain silent and a right to representation by a lawyer, a hearing in which evidence is presented, the opportunity to call witnesses and to cross-examine hostile witnesses, a record of the proceedings, a reasoned opinion, and the right to appeal the judge’s decision.

Not only were the conditions dangerous and dehumanizing, but they robbed children of the chance to be educated. Several states passed laws outlawing child labor. However, unlike other goals of the child saving movement, this one ran directly up against the interests of powerful forces: business owners. States with child labor laws invariably watered them down with all sorts of exceptions that allowed factory owners to continue to exploit this source of cheap labor. It was not until federal legislation against child labor was finally approved by the Supreme Court in 1941 that child labor truly became a thing of the past in the United States.

Decisions since 1969 have spelled out the limitations on expression by students in school: schools may ban obscene, indecent, or ‘‘age inappropriate” expressions, especially in school-sponsored publications or events. Schools also have discretion to choose courses for the official curriculum and reading material for inclusion in school libraries. However, schools may not remove materials from school libraries that are already in the collection. The latter infringes on students’ constitutional right to hear.

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