Clean Technology for the Manufacture of Specialty Chemicals by W Hoyle, Mike Lancaster

By W Hoyle, Mike Lancaster

Generating huge amounts of waste is not just environmentally unacceptable, it's also no longer workable in fiscal phrases. The chemical undefined, relatively the speciality and prescribed drugs sectors, is changing into more and more conscious of the benefits linked to fresh expertise, fairly by way of aggressive virtue and environmental merits. Bringing jointly an figuring out of the recommendations and values of unpolluted know-how by utilizing case reviews from a few prime eu international locations, this ebook offers an perception into topics similar to catalysis; method intensification; and the way to degree the "green" worth of a approach. It additionally highlights the position performed through either the chemical and chemical engineering disciplines within the improvement of purifier approaches. fresh expertise for the Manufacture of Speciality chemical compounds will end up precious analyzing for procedure improvement chemists and engineers, rather these within the specialities and prescription drugs sectors, and also will be a tremendous resource of training fabric for the transforming into variety of fresh expertise chemistry classes.

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At Newcastle this has led us to advocate the continuous “desk top” fine chemical process in order to help the drug companies commercialise their inventions more quickly. A typical production rate of 500 tonnedyear corresponds to a continuous flow rate of about 25 ml/s so a desk top comprising a continuous intensified reactor in conjunction with other intensified separation/crystallisation/dryingmodules, could comfortably meet the market demand. Scale-up problems are avoided because the laboratory scale & the full scale.

The use of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant is generally desirable due to cost and ease of use. Most of the development objectives could be met by removing or replacing acetic acid from the process. One of the seminal reports of the oxidation of thioethers, with hydrogen peroxide was made by Freyermuth,' in which, sodium tungstate is used as a catalyst in the process. As both 1 and 2 are liquids above 20°C we evaluated the oxidation of neat 1 with hydrogen peroxide. No reaction took place. We then evaluated the effect of catalysts in Table 1 Cost and Implications of Diferent Oxidants Alternative Reagents Persulphate Perborate Peracids Chlorinekypohalide Hydrogen peroxide Oxygen/air Implications Solvent, sulphate waste Solvent, borate waste Acid recycle Inorganic waste Catalyst required Auxiliary required Approx.

Why is it important? 3. How do we measure our progress from an early stage in development? In order to address question 3, a review of published suggestions for measuring the "greenness" of reactions or processes is given. This is followed by the description of a template containing several parameters which builds on current methods and can provide a very useful tool in early development work. Examples are then provided to illustrate how the template can be used. 2 WHAT IS GREEN CHEMISTRYRECHNOLOGY?

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