Cogeneration management reference guide by F. William Payne

By F. William Payne

Bringing jointly the services of top specialists from all components of the cogeneration undefined, this grasp quantity presents a compendium of functional, up to the moment details, masking the latest know-how advancements, marketplace developments, new and constructing possibilities, regulatory matters, undertaking economics, method integration and administration, danger administration and extra. you are going to examine the newest traits in public-private partnerships in cogeneration, tips on how to successfully negotiate strength revenues contracts, the simplest methods to securing standby provider, and the way utilities are utilizing cogeneration as a "value extra" carrier. you will discover a useful engineering and financial research of thermal power garage for cogeneration functions, guidance for optimizing process operation and upkeep, an review of the reliability of normal gasoline powered structures, suggestions for reinforcing cogeneration economics, and impressive insurance of regulatory concerns and environmental allowing. a number of case histories supply helpful suggestions for venture planners, builders and engineers.

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Capehart Lynne C. D. William D. , AIC Terrence Kurtz Ronald E. Russell, Esq. Bernard F. Eng. Donald P. P. Paul T. E. Rita Norton Nayeem Sheikh John Reader Paul L. Multari Jackie D. Moran Terrence Kurtz Page 3 Chapter 1 Cogeneration BasicsùTheory and Practice Richard D. P. Citrus World In the overall context of energy management theory, cogeneration is just another form of the conservation process. However, because of its potential for practical application to new or existing systems, it is carving a niche that is second to no other conservation technology.

This is illustrated in Table 1û3. ôThe evaluation is made for generation levels of 0 to 75 percent of total kilowatt-hour requirements for a 1-month period. A standby charge has been added to cover the cost of the utility having to provide backup and other necessary services. ôNote that as the percent of cogeneration increases, the load factor for purchased electricity decreases from 67 percent to 33 percent. This has the effect of increasing the demand/standby component of the total bill from 20 percent to 40 percent.

KWh displaced + Avoided fuel}/(Engine Fuel) Page 34 By definition, FUR < < 1 due to losses in the cogeneration process. It measures how effectively the engine fuel is used to generate electricity while satisfying part of the existing thermal load. Because FUR is directly dependent on the system's ability to replace purchased energy, engines designed to meet demand should have high FUR values. 3. Thermal Load Matching Factor (TLM): TLM = 1 - {(Boiler fuel - Avoided Fuel)/(Boiler fuel)} This index indicates how well the cogeneration thermal output matches existing thermal load.

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