By Wolf A
Competence-based review is the cornerstone of the united kingdom government's reforms of vocational education and of non-academic full-time schooling post-16. Australia has followed related rules and there's enormous curiosity within the inspiration of "competence" in either Europe and North the USA. Alison Wolf describes the most features of the competence-based method because it has emerged within the united kingdom, and lines its origins in American experimental programmes of the Seventies. The arguments for the procedure are mentioned intimately. a lot of those arguments derive from the demonstrable barriers of extra traditional overview, particularly in predicting paintings functionality. Wolf then analyzes the theoretical assumptions which competence-based evaluation stocks with the criterion-referenced flow as a complete, distinguishing truly among these claims that are sustained and people which can't. She additionally synthesizes the growing to be physique of facts on implementation. Many classes have now been discovered approximately no matter if and the way you can still determine a viable, powerful and trustworthy competence-based approach. It has develop into obtrusive either that the preconditions for achievement are frequently lacking and that, in the event that they are overlooked, competence-based "reforms" could have principally adverse effects. the ultimate bankruptcy studies the clients for competence-based awards and gives a few conclusions on what's necessary to a competence-based technique.
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For instance, adding the concept conjunction capability, thus allowing declarations such as (C ∪ D) that enable description of concepts such as Parent = Father ∪ Mother, we obtain a more descriptive DL language. From a semantics perspective, these languages are not different from each another. The differentiation in the occurring languages affects not only the world description capabilities but also the behavior and performance of the algorithms that process them. The OWL language is directly related to DL, since the different “flavors” correspond to different DL language subsets, as we analyze in more detail in the next section.
5 Querying the Semantic Web with SPARQL Representation of knowledge in feature-rich machine readable formats is crucial in the Semantic Web, as is the ability to query and search effectively this knowledge. The latter is the role of SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) (Harris and Seaborne 2013), a W3C recommendation that is essentially for RDF what SQL is for relational databases. The main component of the SPARQL protocol is the SPARQL query language, used for retrieving and restructuring information from RDF graphs.
An RDF graph can be illustrated graphically in the following way: For each triple (subject; property; object), add to the graph the nodes subject and object and the property edge property as follows: subject → object . In Fig. 1, a part of an RDF graph that contains a blank node is drawn. Nodes in RDF can be resources (URIs or IRIs), literals or blank nodes. The difference between resources and literals is that literals are not subject to further ex:staffMember ex:hasWorkAddress ex:hasCity “London” Fig.