By Hans Jurgen Grabke, Michael Schutze
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Additional resources for Corrosion by Carbon and Nitrogen: Metal Dusting, Carburisation and Nitridation (EFC 41)
M. Müller-Lorenz: Steel Res. 66 (1995) 252–258. 25. M Müller-Lorenz; A. Schneider: ISIJ Int. 41 (2001) Supplement S1– S8. 26. ; J. Zhang and G. Inden: Corrosion Sci. 44 (2002) 2353, 45 (2003) 281. 27. Forseth, S. J. Grabke: unpublished. 28. D. A. Ramanarayanan: J. Electrochem. Soc. 147 (2000) 3680–3686. 29. M. J. Grabke: Mat. Corr. 50 (1999) 614–621. 30. ; R. J. Grabke: Mat. Corr. 50 (1999) 622–627. 31. : CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1978) 333–355. 32. ; R. M. Müller-Lorenz: Werkst. und Korr.
The BF TEM image reveals a surface layer of chromium-rich oxide film free of carbon deposit. 85)2O3. The chromium content beneath the surface oxide film was depleted. 2 wt%. Thus a rapidly formed Cr-rich oxide film on the ferritic steel surface is believed to provide initial protection against metal dusting. Based on results using other higher Cr steels we believe that the 20Cr steel will begin to metal dust at 1100 ∞F (593 ∞C) in about 200 h or so. 1 Temperature dependence of metal dusting rate of 11/4Cr–1/2Mo and 5Cr–1/2Mo steels The temperature dependence of the general corrosion rate of 11/4Cr–1/2Mo and 5Cr–1/2Mo steels can be correlated with the nature of carbon on the corroding surface.
12). On the most resistant steels relatively thin scales had grown: 110 nm on the 12CrMoV steel and 45 nm on steel 304, composed of Mn and Cr oxide, nearly free of iron. This kind of scale is impermeable for carbon, the carbon signal decreases to zero from the surface into the oxide. For the etched specimens the oxide scale is thicker and is composed of Fe and Cr oxide in the case of steel 304, even Ni is in the oxide, which is most probably a (Fe,Cr,Ni)3O4 spinel. Such spinel appears to be permeable for carbon since the carbon signal stays high throughout the oxide into the metal phase.