By Y. P. S. Bajaj, S. S. Gosal (auth.), Professor Dr. Y. P. S. Bajaj (eds.)
Production of meals to satisfy the calls for of an ever-increasing human inhabitants on the planet is the most important activity and problem to agriculture at the present time. the normal equipment of plant breeding by myself can not deal with the location. The good fortune of any crop development application depends upon the level of genetic variability within the base inhabitants, yet because of denuding of forests and agricultural land, the certainly taking place pool of germplasm is being depleted. An pressing desire is for this reason ap mother or father to create new variability and raise the genetic base of agricul tural plants. Agricultural biotechnology has improved to a degree within the produc tion of vegetation the place particular features to enhance their yield, ap pearance, disease-resistance, dietary caliber and edition to advert verse soil stipulations may be equipped into the seed. this idea of integrated caliber implies a continuing clinical endeavour to enhance plant char acters utilizing quite a lot of probabilities, and it additionally implies a scrutiny of the fabrics and techniques to be had on this planet today.
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75070 enzyme helicase (Bajaj 1977a). The callose matrix was digested and the tetrad protoplasts thus liberated occasionally divided in cultures (Fig. 5 A - D). Likewise limited quantities of haploid protoplasts from the maturing pollen grains (Bajaj and Davey 1974) isolated by using a combination of enzy- 32 Y. P. s. Bajaj and S. S. Gosal Fig. SA-D. Isolation and culture of pollen tetrad protoplasts of Triticum aestivum. A - C Pollen tetrads after 5, 15 and 45 min treatment with heJicase; note the partial (B) and complete dissolution (C) of the callose wall; D The same after 10 weeks in microculture, showing intense cytoplasmic activity, and division of the protoplasts (Bajaj 1977a) matic and mechanical method also showed occasional budding.
The best callus is induced from young embryos on a medium usually containing 2,4-D, and the plants are then regenerated on an auxin-free medium. These responses are genotypically oriented. Haploid plants obtained through anther/pollen culture have enabled the early release of varieties. Through anther culture combined with distant hybridization, chromosome breakage and chromosome rearrangement might occur and the frequency of genetic exchange might increase. Moreover during the process of culture of anthers, chromosome fragments, dicentric chromosomes and spontaneous telocentric lines are often found, thus alien translocation lines might be directly obtained.
Aestivum T. aestivum 10 pure genetic lines T. durum 2 cultivars 7 Indian cultivars Segments of root, stem, mesocotyl Root-derived callus Triticum vulgare T. aestivum Inoculum Plant species Table 4 (continued) LS+2,4-D (10mgl- l ) i) B5+2,4-D (1 mgl-I)+NAA (1 mgl- I ) ii) B5 + 2,4-D (1 mg I-I)+CM (10070 v/v) MS+2,4-D (2mgl- l ) Mod LS White's (1963) Smith's (1967) White's (1963) Smith's (1967) Medium C. Establishment of tissue culture Of all the segments, mesocotyl gave the best callus NAA (5-10 mg I-I) was promotory whereas kin, zeatin, GA, inositol, diphenyl urea and CW were not stimulatory Effects of auxins, kin and GA were similar in agar and shake cultures Detached wheat heads were successfully grown till seed formation Callus formation Callus formation was under genetic control Growth response Bajaj and Dhanju (1980) BaronceIli et al.