Crustacea. Cladocera, Bosminidae by Ulrich Lieder

By Ulrich Lieder

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Adult females have an ovipositor, a long, thin tube that protrudes from the tip of the abdomen. Males lack an ovipositor. When another cricket approaches a male, he uses chemoreceptors in his antennae to identify whether it is a male or a female. During mating, males transfer a jellylike spermatophore to the female. The female uses her ovipositor to lay eggs in damp soil (Loher & Dambach 1989). At warm temperatures, the eggs hatch in 7-10 days and look like small wingless crickets. House crickets molt several times during their life span of 2-3 months.

Many people base their knowledge of animals on informal observations. Although these informal observations are a good beginning, they cannot provide information that is reliable and accurate enough to advance the science of animal behavior. Our current knowledge of interesting phenomena such as dominance hierarchies, mating behavior, and habitat preferences has been based on careful, systematic observations (Martin & Bateson 1993; Siiter 1999). Systematic observations depend on (1) clear definitions of the behavior observed and (2) an assurance that these definitions are used consistently for the all of the data collected.

Be sure that your definitions enable you to distinguish between the groups. 7. On an attached page, indicate the name of your dependent variable, and explain how you measured this variable. If your dependent variable involved a behavior pattern (such as counting the number of occurrences of an event), then include a sketch of the behavior in its typical form to create an operational definition. 8. , continuous or instantaneous) that you used, and describe how you used these to collect your data.

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