By Leo Mandelkern
This re-creation of quantity 2 of Leo Mandelkern's self-contained paintings is an up to date, authoritative account of the kinetics and mechanisms of polymer crystallization. Progressing from the equilibrium recommendations offered in quantity 1, it offers a entire therapy of the encircling theories and experimental effects from basic to advanced polymer structures. the amount can be a useful reference paintings for all chemists, physicists and fabrics scientists operating within the quarter of polymer crystallization.
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Additional info for Crystallization of Polymers volume 2 Kinetics and mechanisms - Second edition
Curve C total crystallinity. (From Hillier (55)) P´erez-Cardenas et al. developed a more realistic multi-stage process by considering an isotherm of the type shown in Fig. (58) Region I, where the derived Avrami or free-growth expressions hold, is defined as the primary crystallization. A quality ζ is introduced that represents the weight fraction of polymer that has crystallized at the end of Region II. It is assumed that Region II represents both primary and secondary crystallization. Region III, on the other hand, only represents secondary crystallization.
15). All nuclei activated at t = 0. c From L. B. Morgan, Phil. Trans. R. , 247, 13 (1954). b of crystallization, θ (t) can be identified with the fraction untransformed. e. the nucleation rate. To obtain E, the contribution dE due to an annulus of breadth dr situated around P at a radial distance r , is integrated over all values of r from zero to Gt. G is the lineal growth velocity and the annulus possesses an area equal to 2πr dr. During a period equal to (t − r/G), any point within the annulus will be capable of sending out circles that will reach P before time t.
However, as indicated in the table a significant portion of the transformation can be explained equally well by either the free-growth or Avrami theories. The introduction of the impingement concept has made substantial improvement in fitting the observed crystallization kinetics of metals, and other monomeric systems, to theory. However, as the analysis of experimental data has indicated, no significant gain over the free-growth approximation is achieved in the crystallization kinetics of polymers.