Design for Manufacturability and Statistical Design: A by Michael Orshansky

By Michael Orshansky

Layout for Manufacturability and Statistical layout: A accomplished technique provides a complete evaluate of tools that must be mastered in knowing state of the art layout for manufacturability and statistical layout methodologies. largely, layout for manufacturability is a collection of strategies that try and repair the systematic resources of variability, similar to these because of photolithography and CMP. Statistical layout, however, bargains with the random assets of variability. either paradigms function inside of a typical framework, and their joint finished remedy is among the targets of this ebook and an enormous differentation.

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Extra info for Design for Manufacturability and Statistical Design: A Constructive Approach (Integrated Circuits and Systems)

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5 bulk CMOS devices has been decreasing roughly in proportion to Lef f . 16 Fig. 14. The random placement of dopants also impacts the definition of the source and drain regions, leading to the variation of source and drain capacitance and resistance. (Reprinted from [49], c 2006 IBM). √ uncertainty (σ/µ) in the number of atoms grows as 1/ M . 15 shows the variance of the number of dopant atoms for different values of the effective channel length. We now need to model the impact of dopant number uncertainty on the threshold voltage itself.

Fig. 1. Dishing and erosion in copper CMP. 2 COPPER CMP 45 feature size. The high points correspond to the surface of the dielectric material, which the low points indicate the surface of each individual copper line. In general, we find that dishing is worse for larger (wider) features, while erosion is worse for narrower oxide or dielectric spacing between features. In mid-size features, the two effects combine, so that both dishing and erosion contribute to overall copper thickness reduction. 2, the features at the left are “isolated” lines of the given line width, while the array is a sequence of many lines with the same width and spacing.

It can be seen that the data is consistent with the behavior predicted by the model. All in all, the wide devices used in high-performance logic may have a few extra millivolts of variation, an insignificant amount. The problem is 32 2 FRONT END VARIABILITY Fig. 16. Measurements of σVth for different gate geometries. absolutely severe for SRAM designs, that rely on minimum-width transistors, which may have σVth =40 mV. The magnitude of Vth uncertainty due to RDF makes it one of the most difficult problems facing CMOS scaling, and especially, SRAM scaling.

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