By Jozef Piotrowski
This publication offers ways, fabrics, and units that dispose of the cooling requisites of IR photodetectors working within the center- and long-wavelength levels of the IR spectrum. it really is dependent almost always at the authors' reviews in constructing and fabricating close to room temperature HgCdTe detectors at Vigo platforms Ltd. and on the Institute of utilized Physics army college of know-how (both in Warsaw, Poland). The textual content additionally discusses suggestions to different particular difficulties of high-temperature detection, similar to negative assortment potency as a result of a brief diffusion size, the Johnson-Nyquist noise of parasitic impedances, and interfacing of very low resistance units to electronics. compatible for graduate scholars in physics and engineering who've obtained a uncomplicated education in glossy sturdy nation physics and digital circuits, this publication may also be of curiosity to people who paintings with aerospace sensors and structures, distant sensing, thermal imaging, army imaging, optical telecommunications, IR spectroscopy, and lidar.Contents - Acronyms and Abbreviations - Preface - advent - basic functionality obstacles of Infrared Photodetectors - fabrics Used for Intrinsic Photodetectors - Intrinsic Photodetectors - Hg1-xCdxTe Photoconductors - Hg1-xCdxTe Photodiodes - Photoelectromagnetic, Magnetoconcentration, and Dember IR Detectors - Lead Salt Photodetectors - replacement Uncooled Long-Wavelength IR Photodetectors - ultimate feedback - Index
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Additional info for High-Operating-Temperature Infrared Photodetectors (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM169)
Gawron, “Ultimate performance of infrared photodetectors and figure of merit of detector material,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 63–68 (1997). 5. J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski, “New generation of infrared photodetectors,” Sensors and Actuators A 67, 146–152 (1998). 6. J. Piotrowski, “Uncooled operation of IR photodetectors,” Opto-Electr. Rev. 12, 111–122 (2004). 7. T. Ashley and C. T. Elliott, “Non-equilibrium mode of operation for infrared detection,” Electron. Lett. 21, 451–452 (1985). 8. T. Ashley, T.
49 The perfect quality of crystals grown by this method is accompanied by a low growth rate. The bulk Hg1−x Cdx Te crystals are initially used for any types of IR photodetectors. At present these crystals are still used for some IR applications, including n-type single-element photoconductors, SPRITE detectors, and arrays. 3 Epitaxy The present generation of Hg1−x Cdx Te is based on epitaxial layers. Compared to bulk growth techniques, epitaxial techniques offer the possibility to grow large-area (≈100 cm2 ) epilayers and sophisticated layered structures with abrupt and complex composition and doping profiles that can be configured to improve the performance of photodetectors.
The properties of narrow-gap semiconductors that are used as the material systems for IR detectors result from the direct energy bandgap structure: a high density of states in the valence and conduction bands, which results in strong absorption of IR radiation and a relatively low rate of thermal generation. 1 compares important parameters of narrow-gap semiconductors used in IR detector fabrication. 1 Some physical properties of narrow-gap semiconductors. 2 shows the most important material systems used for intrinsic photodetectors.