Rough Waters: Nature and Development in an East African by Christine J. Walley

By Christine J. Walley

Tough Waters explores some of the most the most important difficulties of the modern era--struggles over entry to, and use of, the surroundings. It combines insights from anthropology, historical past, and environmental reports, mounting an interdisciplinary problem to modern debts of "globalization." The booklet specializes in The Mafia Island Marine Park, a countrywide park in Tanzania that turned the heart of political clash in the course of its production within the mid-1990s. The park, reflecting a brand new new release of the world over backed tasks, was once designed to inspire environmental conservation in addition to improvement. instead of aside from citizens, as have been universal in East Africa's mainland flora and fauna parks, Mafia Island was once meant to symbolize a brand new form of nationwide park that will motivate the participation of sector citizens and contain their rules. whereas the park were defined within the project's normal administration plan as "for the folk and via the people," citizens remained excluded from the main simple judgements made in regards to the park. The e-book info the day by day tensions and alliances that arose between Mafia citizens, Tanzanian executive officers, and representatives of foreign firms, as each one team tried to regulate and outline the park. Walley's research argues technocentric method of conservation and improvement can paintings to the detriment of either poorer humans and the surroundings. It additional means that the idea that of the worldwide should be insufficient for figuring out this and different social dramas within the modern international.

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Extra info for Rough Waters: Nature and Development in an East African Marine Park

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This chapter considers bureaucracy itself to be a site of struggle within the marine park and explores how the valorization and exclusion of particular kinds of knowledge within park institutions works to marginalize Mafia residents despite the official emphasis on participation. The final chapter, “Tourist Encounters: Alternate Readings of Nature and ‘Development,’ ” considers the different meanings assigned to development by various park actors as well as the social implications of the particular form of “development” being championed within the marine park—tourism.

I was also at times called upon to serve as an intermediary with individuals involved in Chole’s tourist camp or with the marine park. Some people clearly hoped that what I might say, or later write in my book or ripoti, could serve as a means to communicate with more powerful others who could not, or would not, otherwise hear their viewpoints. Although my relationships with people on Chole were marked by a closeness built, in some cases, on affection and friendship, and in others on mutual self-interest, my relationships with other actors on Mafia were at times more fraught.

On Mafia, rather than politically appropriating the concept of maendeleo or development, residents have instead mapped it onto broader historical understandings of wealth and economic relations. Similarly, what are often referred to as modern institutions have also been put to multiple uses within the marine park. For exam- 16 • Introduction ple, contestation over the apparatus of park bureaucracy itself formed a significant strand in the social drama of Mafia’s marine park (see chapter 7). In addition, the fact that bureaucracies can institutionalize rights and counter abuses of power (while also imposing their will upon the less powerful) is a point that may be too easily neglected in some Foucauldian accounts.

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