Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature by Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano

By Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)

Microorganisms are able to generating a large choice of biopolymers. Homopolymer peptides, that are made from just a unmarried kind of amino acid, are a ways much less ubiquitous. the single amino-acid homopolymers recognized to take place in nature are offered during this quantity. Poly-epsilon-L-lysine is a polycationic peptide and shows antimicrobial job opposed to a large spectrum of microorganisms. it's either secure and biodegradable and is as a result used as a nutrients preservative in numerous nations. furthermore, there was nice curiosity in scientific and different purposes of poly-lysine and its derivatives. against this, poly-gamma-glutamic acid is an strange anionic polypeptide. it's also water soluble, biodegradable, suitable for eating, non-toxic and non-immunogenic and will be chemically converted to introduce a number of medicinal drugs. those beneficial properties are very helpful for pharmaceutical and biomedical functions. Poly-glutamic acid can also be a hugely beautiful as foodstuff ingredient.

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Investigation of an enzyme synthesizing e-PL should facilitate biosynthetic engineering and help to create new classes of biopolymers. This review focuses on characterization of an e-PL synthetase (Pls) and its biological machinery for e-PL synthesis. In addition, an overview of effective genetic system for an e-PL producer, S. albulus NBRC14147, which was used as a powerful tool for developing a deeper understanding of the Pls and for constructing an e-PL overproducer, will be given. 2 Genetic System in an «-PL Producer, S.

57 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Abstract Poly-e-L-lysine (e-poly-L-lysine, e-PL) is used as a food additive on the basis of its strong antimicrobial activity (Fine chem 29:18–25, 2000). e-PL is industrially produced by fermentation process using Streptomyces albulus. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism (Nat Chem Biol 4:766–772, 2008) and microbial degradation of e-PL (FEMS Microbiol Lett 207:147–151, 2002; Arch Microbiol 178:325–330, 2002; J Biosci Bioeng 96:92–94, 2003; Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72:173–181, 2006) have been reported.

46 e-PL Degradation by Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 e-PL Degradation by e-PL-Tolerant Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 e-PL Degradation by e-PL-Producing Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4 Molecular Genetic Analysis of e-PL-Degrading Enzyme of S. albulus . . . . . . . . . .

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