By Raj Rajkumar
Examine the state-of-the-art in Embedded platforms and include the web of items the subsequent new release of mission-critical and embedded platforms may be “cyber physical”: they're going to call for the accurately synchronized and seamless integration of advanced units of computational algorithms and actual elements. Cyber-Physical platforms is the definitive consultant to development cyber-physical platforms (CPS) for a large spectrum of engineering and computing purposes. 3 pioneering specialists have introduced jointly the field’s most vital paintings in a single quantity that might be imperative for all practitioners, researchers, and complex scholars. This advisor addresses CPS from a number of views, drawing on broad contributions from best researchers. The authors and participants evaluation key CPS demanding situations and recommendations in a number of software domain names. subsequent, they describe the technical foundations underlying glossy CPS solutions—both what we all know and what we nonetheless have to examine. all through, the authors provide guiding rules for each aspect of CPS improvement, from layout and research to making plans destiny concepts. entire insurance contains knowing CPS drivers, demanding situations, foundations, and rising instructions construction life-critical, context-aware, networked platforms of clinical units developing strength grid structures that decrease expenses and entirely combine renewable power assets Modeling complicated interactions throughout cyber and actual domain names Synthesizing algorithms to implement CPS regulate Addressing area, time, power, and reliability matters in CPS sensor networks using complicated techniques to real-time scheduling Securing CPS: fighting “man-in-the-middle” and different assaults making sure logical correctness and simplifying verification implementing synchronized communique among dispensed brokers utilizing model-integration languages to outline formal semantics for CPS versions
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Extra info for Cyber-Physical Systems
Consider, for example, the interaction between a device and its sensors. For code generation, one may need to specify the details of how the device retrieves data from sensors. A sampling-based 15 16 Chapter 1 Medical Cyber-Physical Systems mechanism with a particular sampling interval will yield a very different generated code compared to an interrupt-based mechanism. However, exposing such details in the model adds another level of complexity to the model, which may increase verification time to an unacceptable duration.
To further complicate the problem, the same beam is applied to multiple locations in the patient’s body and needs to be switched from location to location, opening up the possibility of interference between beam scheduling and application. In addition to controlling the proton beam, a highly critical function of software in a proton treatment system is real-time image processing to determine the precise position of the patient and detect any patient movement. In [Rae03], the authors analyzed the safety of proton therapy machines, but their analysis concentrated on a single system, the emergency shutdown.
From the modeling and verification perspective, there are several reasons to separate the platform-independent aspects from the platformdependent aspects. First, hiding platform-dependent details reduces the modeling and verification complexity. Consider, for example, the interaction between a device and its sensors. For code generation, one may need to specify the details of how the device retrieves data from sensors. A sampling-based 15 16 Chapter 1 Medical Cyber-Physical Systems mechanism with a particular sampling interval will yield a very different generated code compared to an interrupt-based mechanism.